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first_imgShare on Facebook Tweet on Twitter March 26, 2018 at 9:52 am Reply Florida gas prices jump 12 cents; most expensive since 2014 You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. UF/IFAS in Apopka will temporarily house District staff; saves almost $400,000 1 COMMENT TAGSPoliotheconversation.com Previous articleLegislators Bracy, Brown and Sullivan coming to Apopka in AprilNext articleCounty Road 435 temporary ramp permanently closing this weekend Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR According to this article, polio spreads through drinking water that comes in contact with sewage waste, and here in our area, they are injecting treated sewage water directly into our aquifer, which is our area’s source of drinking water. Remember, this is the same treated sewage water, or “reuse” water that residents are informed to NOT to drink! Sounds horrible, considering that treated sewage water does not successfully remove all viruses. This is not what nature intended! The multiple soil layers were intended to filter the used water with time! Mama Mia Gov. DeSantis says new moment-of-silence law in public schools protects religious freedom LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Please enter your comment! Please enter your name here At its height in the 1940s and ‘50s, polio paralyzed more than 35,000 Americans every year. But thanks to vaccines as well as good hygiene and sanitation practices, polio has largely been forgotten in the developed world.Now, even in less-developed regions, it’s close to being wiped out entirely. But there are still challenges to overcome before polio can join smallpox as a virus that has been eradicated worldwide.With the support of the World Health Organization, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (a strategic partner of The Conversation US that provides funding for The Conversation internationally), Rotary International and others, public health workers and volunteers work tirelessly and in dangerous conditions to vaccinate every one of the world’s children. The number of polio cases globally dropped from 350,000 in 1988 to just 37 in 2016. Thirty years ago, polio was regularly found in 125 of the world’s 190 or so countries. Today, only three countries continue to see regular cases: Pakistan, Nigeria, and Afghanistan.Of these, Pakistan is closest to becoming polio-free thanks to its persistent, innovative vaccination campaign programs. But its poor security, weak health system and lack of proper sanitation work against this effort.The lessons infectious disease preparedness and response researchers like us are learning in Pakistan, during what’s hopefully a final push against polio, will also apply elsewhere, as public health experts work to wipe out other infectious diseases around the world.Transmission electron micrograph of polioviruses. Graham Beards, CC BY-SAPolio in people and in the environmentWild poliovirus is not particularly hardy and can’t survive for long in the environment. If the virus cannot find an unvaccinated person to serve as its host, it will die. This fact means vaccination efforts can fully exterminate the virus by denying it a place to live in human hosts.The world’s polio eradication campaign has already done away with two of the three naturally occurring wild polioviruses. Wild poliovirus type 2 was last seen in 1999, and there has not been a case of wild poliovirus type 3 since 2012.Polio spreads primarily through water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Where sources of drinking water come into contact with sewage waste – often the case in developing countries like Pakistan – the virus spreads easily.To complicate matters, nearly 3 out of 4 people infected with the poliovirus never have any symptoms at all. So most carriers of polio never know they harbor the virus, or that they’re spreading it to others.In addition, those who do have symptoms usually seem to have the flu, with fever, headaches, body aches and vomiting. In only around 1 percent of cases do symptoms include temporary or permanent paralysis.This means that it is possible for the virus to exist and spread in a community even when there are no diagnosed cases of polio. For that reason, public health workers use two different measures to gauge the success of a vaccination effort: the number of people diagnosed with polio, and how much of the virus is found in the environment.A health worker gives a polio vaccine to a child at a railway station in Pakistan. AP Photo/Fareed KhanCultural challengesIn Pakistan, these two measures paint somewhat different pictures of disease eradication. The not-so-good news is that 16 percent of the water sources tested in 2017 contain the polio virus, a slight increase from 2016 levels.The better news is that from 2014 to 2017, the number of new polio cases dropped a whopping 97 percent, from 306 cases to just eight. The country’s government, with the support of the international community, has vaccinated most Pakistanis, which no doubt accounts for the impressive drop in diagnosed cases. However, because vaccination is not universal, the virus persists in some regions of Pakistan and poses a threat to those who are not vaccinated or who have not received vaccination boosters as scheduled.There are several cultural barriers to wiping out polio in Pakistan. Vaccinations are usually given at health clinics and transit points, where public health workers can make contact with a large share of the population. Mobile vaccination units reach people in other locations, but cannot safely get to children in high-conflict areas.In many of these areas, armed militants refuse to let public health officials vaccinate children, claiming that the polio vaccine is part of a Western plot to sterilize Muslims. In 2012, the Taliban, which remains in control in some mountainous areas, imposed a ban on vaccinations, which slowed the polio eradication effort. Furthermore, polio vaccine campaign workers have been targets of violence, as seen most recently in the killing of a mother-daughter vaccination team in January and an ambush this past week in a remote tribal area that killed two medical workers and wounded two others.With armed security, a Pakistani health worker marks a house after administering polio vaccine. AP Photo/Shakil AdilIn order to overcome some of the challenges, members of the eradication campaign have coordinated vaccination efforts with military operations. When a large military offense in 2015 pushed the Taliban out of the northern provinces of Pakistan, it cleared the way for hundreds of thousands of children to receive the vaccination.High illiteracy rates, extreme poverty, and religious beliefs also can cause parents to refuse vaccines – in Pakistan and elsewhere – for their children. In these instances, education and outreach are vitally important. Helping parents understand the dangers of disease may help overcome misinformation about the vaccine and increase positive association with vaccination, as it has in the United States.Pharmaceutical challengesPublic health officials have two types of polio vaccine in their medical supply kit: an oral vaccine and an inactivated vaccine. Both are necessary to eradicate polio. The oral vaccine is made from a live weakened virus. The inactivated version is made with a dead virus.The oral vaccination works significantly better against naturally occurring poliovirus, known as wild poliovirus. Additionally, the administration method – being given by mouth – is thought to increase vaccine uptake because it does not require an injection.The body builds immunity from this live vaccine, and then can withstand the virus if exposed to it in the future. Countries, where polio is present, must use the oral vaccine in order to eliminate wild poliovirus because the inactivated vaccine does not stop its transmission since it produces lower levels of mucosal immunity.Though necessary, using the live oral vaccine comes with some challenges. For example, it can cause vaccine-derived cases of polio, which include cases of paralysis. In this unfortunate and extremely rare scenario, the vaccine meant to prevent a terrible illness directly transmits it. Of the 10 billion doses of oral polio vaccine administered since 2000, there have only been 760 cases of vaccine-derived polio.Though the oral vaccine is vital to the eradication of wild poliovirus, its use must be discontinued as soon as the wild virus is wiped out. Otherwise, it runs the risk of hindering complete eradication by perpetuating existence of poliovirus in the environment through human excrement and continuing to introduce new vaccine-derived cases of the disease.Once Pakistan is declared free of wild poliovirus, the eradication campaign must switch to using the inactivated vaccine.Because the inactivated vaccine provokes a weaker immune response, it doesn’t effectively disrupt the transmission of wild poliovirus. But it does protect against the weaker vaccine-derived poliovirus, and it doesn’t contribute to vaccine-derived cases. Once the only remaining strains are vaccine-derived, inactivated vaccines can be used to completely wipe out the disease.It is likely that a world without polio may not be too far off in the future — and then infectious disease researchers can make use of the lessons learned in Pakistan as they move the fight to other diseases elsewhere around the world. By Christine Crudo Blackburn, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Scowcroft Institute of International Affairs, Bush School of Government and Public Service, Texas A&M University and Morten Wendelbo, Lecturer, Bush School of Government and Public Service; Research Fellow, Scowcroft Institute of International Affairs; and, Policy Sciences Lecturer, Texas A&M University Libraries, Texas A&M University.Note: This article first published on theconversation.comlast_img read more

first_img China’s Cyber ​​Censorship Figures June 11, 2013 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Chinese diplomats threaten French journalist after Tibet report News ChinaAsia – Pacific News RSF_en News Interference and attempted censorshipPayen described to Reporters Without Borders the events that followed the broadcasting of his report. Taking advantage of a loosening in controls on people entering Tibet, Payen, entered the territory clandestinely in early May in order to do a report on China’s repression of its Tibetan minority. His report, entitled “Seven days in Tibet,” was broadcast by France 24 on 30 May and was followed by a live debate.As Payen was leaving Paris for Bangkok on 3 June, the Chinese embassy in Paris contacted France 24 and asked to meet with him. As he had by then already left, two embassy officials went to France 24 to talk to its CEO, Marc Saikali. For two hours, they accused the station of broadcasting a mendacious report that was “riddled with errors” and demanded its removal from the website. The station refused.From harassment to open threatsOn his arrival in Bangkok on 4 June, Payen received a call on his mobile phone from the Chinese embassy in Thailand, although neither he nor France 24 had given his number to any Chinese diplomats. Asked to go to the embassy as soon as possible, Payen said he was willing to meet at a Bangkok hotel, but the Chinese diplomats ruled out a meeting anywhere but the embassy.The embassy then stepped up its harassment of Payen, who received several anonymous calls and many texts. A message left yesterday by a female member of the embassy’s staff was openly threatening.Listen to the audio message in English: “I just want to tell you that the purpose of the meeting is to listen to your explanation of why you cheated a chinese visa and why you reported the news in a distorted way. However, since you postponed the meeting again and again, I’m afraid if you cannot manage to meet tomorrow, you’ll have to take all the possible responsibilities.”She gave him an ultimatum to attend a meeting at the embassy by today at the latest to explain why he had “cheated” in order to obtain a Chinese visa. She urged him to stop postponing the meeting and to comply with the embassy request, or else “take the responsibility” of his refusal.Tibet – a sensitive subjectForeign journalists are forbidden to visit Tibet and the Chinese police continue to prevent them from covering demonstrations by Tibetans in nearby provinces. The police arrested a CNN crew at a toll station in Sichuan province in January 2012 and prevented them from travelling on to the neighbouring Tibet Autonomous Region.The Chinese authorities are aware that these bans violate their own laws and often use bad weather or the state of the roads as pretexts for denying access to Tibet.The police readily harass foreign journalists suspected of intending to defy their instructions. Some journalists have complained of being followed. The police have escorted others to the nearest airport, interrogated them for hours, forced them to delete their photos and video footage, and confiscated their equipment.The police not only ask to see press cards and passports but also temporary foreign residence permits, which journalists now have to carry with them. These violations of freedom of information foster a climate of permanent surveillance that is stressful for journalists and often takes a psychological toll.In February 2012, China-based foreign journalists asked the authorities to allow them to freely visit the provinces that are closed to them, to have freedom of movement throughout the country and to be able to interview anyone who is willing. Submitted by the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of China (FCCC), which is not recognized by the government, the request was not granted. China: Political commentator sentenced to eight months in prison March 12, 2021 Find out more Democracies need “reciprocity mechanism” to combat propaganda by authoritarian regimes News An Agence France-Presse journalist was arrested in October 2012. Two Sky News journalists were arrested while doing a live report from Tiananmen Square in March 2013, although they had permission to film. And there has been an increase in foreign journalists being denied accreditation or visas.China is on the Reporters Without Borders list of “Enemies of the Internet” and is ranked 173rd out of 179 countries in the 2013 Reporters Without Borders press freedom index.Read the 2013 special report on surveillance: “Enemies of the Internet” – China Growing problems for foreign journalistsThe authorities have stepped up their harassment of the foreign media ever since the Arab Spring echoed around the world in 2011. Harassment of journalists based outside China is still unusual, but there has been a marked increase in harassment of journalists visiting China or based there. The Communist Party does not hesitate to employ police violence, disguised by the use of plainclothes police, to control foreign media coverage. The beating that a Bloomberg cameraman received in March 2011 was one of the most striking cases. Watch the video: Receive email alerts Photo : youtube.com Help by sharing this information Organisation Reporters Without Borders is outraged by the way Chinese diplomatic personnel have harassed and threatened French journalist Cyril Payen, a reporter for the French TV news station France 24, since the station broadcast his documentary “Seven days in Tibet” on 30 May.A few days after it was broadcast, Chinese embassy personnel went to the TV channel’s headquarters in Paris to demand the documentary’s withdrawal from its website. The Chinese embassy in Bangkok then threatened him by telephone after he arrived in Thailand.“Such unacceptable behaviour might be expected from the mafia but not from senior diplomats,” Reporters Without Borders said. “It is acceptable for an embassy to express its disagreement with a report. But it is completely unacceptable for diplomats stationed in France and Thailand to try to intimidate a news outlet into modifying editorial content, to harangue a journalist and to summon him with the intention of interrogating him.“Such methods are undoubtedly normal in China, and that is regrettable, but they have no place in a free country. The telephone threats that these diplomats made against a French journalist expose them to the possibility of judicial proceedings.“We urge the French authorities to summon the representatives of the Chinese embassy in Paris in order to protest against this unacceptable harassment. The French authorities must condemn the Chinese government’s use of such aggressive methods with a French journalist and their violation of his freedom of information.” “Seven Days in Tibet” to go further April 27, 2021 Find out more ChinaAsia – Pacific June 2, 2021 Find out more Follow the news on Chinalast_img read more